The concept of Keystone emerges from the nest-building behaviour of some birds in nature. These permanent nest structures serve as habitat for several life forms. Such keystone species become crucial in providing opportunities for other associated beings to grow and evolve. Thus, Keystone Foundation is born out of a simple ecological principle of the interdependence of natural systems.

Keystone believes in “small is effective/small is global” and hence, is focused on the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, where it is currently working in 135 tribal habitations with an estimated number of 15000 individuals. With the focus initially being on poverty alleviation of the honey hunter community, the first years of Keystone was concerned with the dynamics of honey harvesting and marketing. Since then, Keystone’s mission has led it to diversify its programme base to encompass all aspects affecting the wellness of indigenous communities.


The goal is to work on issues of Natural Resources and Rural Development, with Indigenous People in mountainous and adjoining regions, addressing the challenges of conservation, livelihoods and enterprise development, through appropriate – knowledgeaction, technologies, socio-economic innovations and institutions.Our work is expected to lead to the following outcomes for which the organization will directly be responsible and accountable:

1. Increasing conservation perspectives and ecologically sound principles in all aspects of our work.
2. Increasing the availability of viable natural resource-based sustainable livelihood options for indigenous people.
3. Village groups and institutions taking greater responsibility for managing programmes.
4. Sustaining traditional and cultural practices through opportunities provided within programmes.
5. Knowledge developed by research and action projects, being owned by stakeholders and put to practice.
6. Indigenous people being in a position to dialogue with decisionmakers.
7. Influencing policy & decision making towards environmental governance.
8. Promoting organic & fair trade principles in market based interventions.


The beginning was made when four core members of Keystone, set out on a state-wide survey of apiculture in Tamil Nadu, in 1994.  Trudging miles of mountain paths and dusty roads with backpacks, this field survey gave a precious opportunity to look at the situation of 11 indigenous communities across 15 hill ranges in Tamil Nadu.

The details of honey hunting techniques, forest vines used, associated traditions and rituals, social systems and economic dependence on such an activity, were a fascinating eye-opener. More importantly, they reflected on changes in land use, dwindling forest cover, introduction of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and other degradation, posing a growing challenge. Exploring and addressing adivasi issues of development and a natural resource from a local perspective was the key to our discovering a different approach.

Previous work in honey gathering with the Paliyan adivasi community in the Palni Hills during 1990-1993, suggested that this traditional activity could be an effective entry point to work with indigenous communities centred on natural resources and livelihoods. The survey brought the team to the lower Nilgiris, where a number of hunter-gatherer communities practise honey hunting and subsistence agriculture. A potential area for future work and learning materialised and Nilgiris, as a region, was chosen to begin work.

Please go through A Treefall Gap, a document elaborating our mandate. This document was born after an external impact assessment and a participatory process amongst staff.




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