The Cholanaickans live in the Karulai Forest Range of Nilambur in Kerala, forming part of the western NBR. They are the most primitive indigenous community, still in the pre-agricultural level of development. The people live in temporary shelters alongside rivers and shift to caves in the monsoons. Their lives are closely linked to the semi evergreen and moist deciduous forests around that area. They collect NTFPs and sell them to the Co-operative Society of Nilambur. They collect honey, black dammer, mosses, nutmeg, shikakai from the forest and take back rice, tobacco, salt, oil and other necessities from the Society. Now, they number approximately 426 and continue their lifestyle, though slowly being drawn into modern market economies. Very few development programmes address this community and since they are so few in number, they also marry into other communities, especially the Padinaickens.