Pillur valley lies in an isolated corner of Coimbatore district and is densely populated. The forests in Pillur form the southern part of the Nilgirii Biosphere Reserve. It is bounded by the Sathyamangalam and Nilgiris divistions on the north and north-east and by the Palghat division of Kerala in the south & south-west.

Pillur is located at an average elevation of 400 m and received rainfall of 700 mm in 2008. It extends into the Attapadi area of Kerala and as a result, has a lot of social, cultural and economic relations with the state. The valley is dominated by a dam and reservoir, part of many, along the river Bhavani. The main inhabitants are Irulas and the Electricity Board staff. The Irulas depend on their livelihood with contribution of activities on their farms including collection of forest produce and occasional labour with the Electricity Board campus. The lower hills have a scrub to dry deciduous forest with some moist patches. The riparian vegetation is distinct with large number of mango trees.